The Great Wall Of China history summary is our brief exploration regarding deep history and fascinated fact of this cultural heritage. Long before human being is invented missile or drones to attack the enemy in war, military are dependent on the simpler way to protect themselves. The principle is quite simple, just let the good people inside and never give the bad one permit to cross the border. This is actually what the Great Wall is trying to do, protect unarmed and innocent civilian from government’s enemy. Even China is not the first one who created this type of defense since Korea, Denmark and Roman empire also do the same thing, but all of us agree that the Great Wall of China is the best one among them. The unique architecture and history who cover it, make numerous legendary tale and incredible claim about Great Wall. Standing for more than 2000 years, this building is a true witness of Chinese history.
The history behind it
Actually, the Great Wall itself is not continually wall, but more like combination of walls from different dynasty and region, starting with Gobi desert to yellow sea. So, to understand the Great Wall of China history, you need to look from each period of construction.
770-476 BCE (Spring and Autumn Phase)
The first period of the Great Wall construction is believed to be built on this phase. On this period, China isn’t the same as China nowadays, it is consisted from seven different states and all of them are run by feudal system. To protect the land, they built the wall along the state border. So, actually the Great Wall of China first constructions itself never be intended as master plan in repelling northern invaders.
475-221 BCE (Warring States Phase)
Since all the states are busy to fight each other, the charm of Zhou Dynasty which being the ruler of the states is starting to fade away. Each state is having their own defensive wall at this time because they need to protect themselves from intense state battle and also several nomadic attack.
221-206 BCE (Qin Dynasty Reign)
Due its continuously victory, the Qin proved themselves as the most powerful one and unifying all the states under the reign of the first Chinese empire. The first emperor Qin Shihuang instructed the northern area to merge their wall, so the Mongolian invader couldn’t reach China. The Great Wall of China in Qin dynasty is lining from Gansu to the Liaoning Province and extend for about 5000 kilometers length.
206 BC -220 CE (Han Dynasty Reign)
After the death of Qin Shihuang, this dynasty is lost their power and being replace by Han dynasty. This is the first golden era after reunification. The northern wall is lengthened and strengthened, especially since the Han dynasty succeeded in conquer several northern nomad territory. The Great Wall of China in Han dynasty is lining 10000 kilometers including Gobi desert on the west. This is definitely the longest Great Wall among the other period. It is not only protecting northern area, but also the silk road which being essential trade route for China.
220-960 CE (Northern Dynasties Reign)
Since the Han dynasty was crumbling down, all the region under it involved on the civil war. The northern nomads invaded and building their own kingdom inside the wall. This period is full of war, the dynasty was changed very often, people inside the Great Wall of China can easily found themselves inside another new wall in the next day.
960-1279 (Song Dynasty Reign)
This dynasty is well known for their effort in developing Chinese trade and economy. They build the wall in western area to prevent Liao invasion, the northern and northwest area also being rebuilding to prevent Xia and Jin. But, the Manchu can get through it and ruled the northern area.
1279–1368 (Mongol Empire)
Well, the Great Wall of China in Manchu era was unable to stop Mongolian from invading China. They begin the Mongolian empire and first non-Han dynasty in China. But, since the previous dynasty already doing good job in building and rebuilding the Great Wall, the Mongolian did nothing to it.
1368-1644 (Ming Dynasty Reign)
The Mongol was falling down and another Chinese Han started the Ming dynasty. They are rebuilding the Great Wall for about 100 years to prevent another invasion from north. Several Great Wall section next to Beijing is built on this era.
After the Ming (1644–now)
The end of Chinese Han dynasty is starting when the Manchu takes over the empire. It is also the end of Great Wall construction, until the Chinese republic began to rebuild and open it to public as tourism destination.